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India - Kashmir

Pakistan - India conflict over Kashmir


As British rule came to an end in 1947, Maharaja Hari Singh, the Hindu ruler of the predominantly Muslim states of Jammu and Kashmir, faced the choice of whether to join with India or Pakistan. After Pakistani soldiers invaded, he signed the Instrument of Accession with India. A UN-imposed ceasefire in 1948 called for troop withdrawals and elections to determine Kashmir's future, neither of which happened.

1965 and 1971 saw two more Indo-Pakistani wars, the latter resulting in the creation of the new state of Bangladesh out of eastern Pakistan.

The current insurgency arose in 1989, and its source is in dispute. Pakistan claims it is an uprising of local freedom fighters against Indian rule, while India claims that Pakistan arms and organizes the militants.

The Kashmir region has been subjected to human rights abuses from both Indian and militant forces throughout its history of turmoil. A series of protests, known as the 2010 Kashmir Unrest, demanded demilitarization of Jammu and Kashmir in reaction to human rights violations by Indian soldiers. Over 100 protestors were killed by police forces.

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Fund for Peace (FfP) Failed States Index: 72.9 Warning (worst is 120)
HIIK Conflict Barometer 2008: 4
Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre Global Statistics : 300,000 IDPs very approx.
WFP Hunger Map: 21 % undernourished
Economist Intelligence Unit Sovereign Ratings: Rating BB
International Crisis Group Crisis Watch: Unchanged
News up to: Valley protest over death 12/03 Burhan Wani spoke to LeT chief Hafiz Saeed, sought his support to fight ‘common enemy’ 12/03 J&K govt employee killed during counter-insurgency operation 12/03 Kashmir Govt Orders Magisterial Probe Into Kulgam Civilian Killing 12/03 Civilian killed in anti-terror operations in Jammu-Kashmir 12/03 J&K: Kulgam encounter ends as terrorists flee spot 12/03 Burhan sought Saeed’s ‘blessings’ to fight ‘common enemy’, reveal tapes 12/02 Hizbul video 'den' busted 12/02 Burhan Wani spoke to Hafiz Saeed, sought support 12/02 Provocation price: Omar 12/01 Message from Nagrota: India must be ready for the long haul 12/01 Afghan ph number found on Samba terrorist’s arm 12/01 Nagrota attack: Terrorists infiltrated through small tunnel near border, unexploded shells destroyed 11/30 23 attack bids foiled along LoC this year: BSF 11/30 3 terrorists killed in Samba wanted to blow up trains 11/30 Nagrota Attack: Militants Planned to Blow up Trains in J&K: BSF 11/30 JKLF chief arrested by Indian forces 11/30 High time for India to talk the `language of bullets` with Pak: BJP 11/30 India court frees Kashmir rights activist 11/30 Illegal funds being sent to Kashmir to create unrest: Kiren Rijiju 11/30 Indian Forces, Militants Trade Fire in Kashmir 11/29 How demonetisation will stop terror funding 11/29 Terrorists in PoK beware! IAF's Jaguars just got deadlier 11/29 Nagrota Attack: 3 Soldiers, 4 Terrorists Killed in J&K; Gunbattle Ends 11/29 Two Indian soldiers killed in attack on army base 11/29 Police say rebels attack Indian army base in Kashmir 11/29 Police say rebels attack Indian army base in Kashmir 11/29 Army camp, BSF troops attacked; 2 terrorists, 2 soldiers killed 11/29 Nagrota attack: PM Narendra Modi briefed on operations against militants 11/29 Rebels attack Indian army camp in Kashmir 11/29 Gunbattle rages after Kashmir rebels storm Indian army base 11/29 Rebels storm Indian army base in Kashmir; 3 soldiers killed 11/29 New Pakistan army chief faces tensions with Kabul, India 11/29 Seven Indian soldiers killed in attack on army base 11/29 At Least 7 Indian Servicemen Killed in Attack on Military Camp in Jammu 11/29 Attack on Indian Army Camp in Jammu and Kashmir Kills 7 Soldiers, 3 Militants 11/29 7 Indian military personnel killed in militant attack in Kashmir 11/29 Gen AK Bhatt to replace Ranbir Singh as DGMO 11/28 Lt Gen A K Bhatt new DGMO, will be in charge of all army ops 11/28 New Pakistan army chief faces tensions with Kabul, India 11/28 Police say rebels attack Indian army base in Kashmir 11/28 Challenges facing Pakistan's new army chief 11/28 Pakistan's new army chief brings no change in policy - defence minister 11/27 Farooq Abdullah speaking Pakistan`s language on PoK issue: BJP 11/27 J&K: Terrorists fire at army convoy in Langate, BSF jawan injured 11/26 Militants attack security convoy, BSF jawan injured 11/26 Militants attack BSF convoy in Kashmir 11/26 2 rebels, 1 Indian soldier killed in Kashmir fighting 11/25 Army soldier, 2 terrorists killed in Bandipora encounter 11/25 Indian troops martyr 2 youth in Bandipore 11/25 2 rebels, 1 Indian soldier killed in Kashmir fighting 11/25 2 Suspected Rebels, 1 Indian Soldier Killed in Kashmir  11/25 Militants strike in Valley 11/25 Kashmir: 3 security personnel, 2 terrorists killed 11/25 Is Pakistan's outgoing army chief Raheel Sharif worthy of praise? 11/25 Soldier, 2 militants killed in Bandipora 11/25 2 rebels, 1 Indian soldier killed in Kashmir fighting 11/25 Army foils two infiltration bids in Kashmir 11/24 Pakistan Warns India Against Full-Scale War Over Kashmir 11/24 20K | Army hits back, pounds Pak. posts 11/24 Militants attack police station in Kashmir 11/24 Terrorists attack police station in Handwara area of Kashmir`s Kupwara district 11/24 Army conducts search operations in J&K`s Baramulla; 1-2 terrorists believed to be hiding in Sopore`s Tujjer village 11/24 12K | After India’s retaliation, an alarmed Pakistan moves UN 11/24 Militants Attack Police Station in Kupwara 11/24 Two Terrorists, a Jawan Killed in Encounter Along LoC in Jammu And Kashmir 11/24 Army foils two bids to infiltrate Valley 11/24 Kashmir: Militants attack police station in Handwara 11/24 RSS' Manmohan Vaidya Terms Demonetisation a 'Noble Endeavour' 11/24 90% people in Kashmir want peace: Sri Sri 11/24 Indian Army`s DGMO talks on phone with Pakistani counterpart 11/23 Indo-Pak DGMOs talk after punitive fire assault by Indian Army 11/23 200 terrorists active in Jammu and Kashmir: Govt 11/23 Pakistan says Indian shelling kills 4 civilians in Kashmir 11/23 Indian Army launches counter-offensive to avenge killing of soldiers 11/23 `Funding of terror, stone pelters in JK hit by demonetisation` 11/22 6mins Rs. 2,000 notes recovered from slain militants 11/22 Three Indian soldiers killed in LoC firing, cowardly Pakistan mutilates body of Army jawan 11/22 2 terrorists killed in Bandipora encounter 11/22 Pak troops kill 3 Indian jawans, body of 1 mutilated 11/22 Siosdia, Mishra detained during anti-demonetisation march 11/22 3 soldiers killed in J&K, 1 body mutilated: Army 11/22 3 Indian soldiers killed near Kashmir frontier with Pakistan 11/22 Rise in infiltration attempts across LoC since Wani`s killing 11/22 Kashmir’s Militant Widows Struggle to Save Their Sons From Insurgency 11/22 Kashmir attack: India vows 'retribution' after soldier killings 11/22 Rs 2000 notes recovered from terrorists in Kashmir 11/22 Told soldiers in Kashmir to shoot enemy, not wait to be martyred: Manohar Parrikar 11/21 Widows of Kashmir's militants struggle to save sons from insurgency 11/21 Told soldiers to shoot enemy, not wait to be martyred: Manohar Parrikar 11/21 Kashmir 'freedom anthem' released to controversy 11/21 Robbers loot old notes 11/21 For 2nd consecutive day, Kashmir remains abuzz with activity 11/20 Pakistan's navy pushes Indian submarine out of its waters 11/20 People flock markets in Kashmir Valley as separatists suspend agitation 11/20 Kashmir bursts into life after four months of shutdown 11/19 Pakistan and Kashmir inter-related: President AJK 11/19 Life in Kashmir back to normal 11/19 AJK President urges int’l community to help resolve Kashmir issue 11/19 Life comes back to normal in Kashmir after 133 days of unrest 11/19