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India - Kashmir

Pakistan - India conflict over Kashmir


As British rule came to an end in 1947, Maharaja Hari Singh, the Hindu ruler of the predominantly Muslim states of Jammu and Kashmir, faced the choice of whether to join with India or Pakistan. After Pakistani soldiers invaded, he signed the Instrument of Accession with India. A UN-imposed ceasefire in 1948 called for troop withdrawals and elections to determine Kashmir's future, neither of which happened.

1965 and 1971 saw two more Indo-Pakistani wars, the latter resulting in the creation of the new state of Bangladesh out of eastern Pakistan.

The current insurgency arose in 1989, and its source is in dispute. Pakistan claims it is an uprising of local freedom fighters against Indian rule, while India claims that Pakistan arms and organizes the militants.

The Kashmir region has been subjected to human rights abuses from both Indian and militant forces throughout its history of turmoil. A series of protests, known as the 2010 Kashmir Unrest, demanded demilitarization of Jammu and Kashmir in reaction to human rights violations by Indian soldiers. Over 100 protestors were killed by police forces.

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Fund for Peace (FfP) Failed States Index: 72.9 Warning (worst is 120)
HIIK Conflict Barometer 2008: 4
Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre Global Statistics : 300,000 IDPs very approx.
WFP Hunger Map: 21 % undernourished
Economist Intelligence Unit Sovereign Ratings: Rating BB
International Crisis Group Crisis Watch: Unchanged
News up to: Final farewell to Colonel Rai, martyred in J&K 01/29 India salutes Colonel MN Rai martyred in anti-terror operations in J&K, his last rites underway 01/29 Tributes paid to Colonel MN Rai martyred in Kashmir gunfight 01/29 Thousands attend funeral of terrorists in Kashmir 01/29 Special Cell in forefront of anti-terror fight Bassi 01/29 Bassi defends cops on Liyaqat Shah arrest 01/29 Tearful but proud daughter salutes Col MN Rai 01/29 Geelani pays tributes to slain militants 01/29 Tearful farewell to Col. M.N. Rai 01/29 WB CM condoles death of Colonel M N Rai 01/29 Tearful farewell to Colonel M N Rai martyred in Kashmir 01/29 Indian Army pays tribute to braveheart Colonel Rai – curtains are down but applause continues 01/28 Army honours braveheart killed in J&K gunbattle 01/28 Kashmir gunfight leaves Indian colonel, two police officers dead 01/28 Indian Army pays tribute to Republic Day awardee officer killed in encounter with terrorists 01/28 Slain CO always led from the front in J-K: Army 01/28 Braveheart Colonel MN Rai's Whatsapp status summed up his motto towards life and duty 01/28 Indian Army honours martyrs of Kashmir gunfight 01/28 Terrorists' relatives asked Colonel Rai to cease fire, then killed him 01/28 Day after bravery award, colonel killed in J&K 01/27 Army officer, awarded on R-Day, killed in Kashmir gun battle 01/27 Army officer killed in Kashmir a day after getting medal 01/27 Two rebels, two troops die in Indian Kashmir gunbattle 01/27 J&K: Awarded yesterday for bravery, killed today 01/27 Two guerrillas army officer killed in Kashmir gunfight 01/27 Price of the relentless daily war in Kashmir 01/27 Two guerrillas killed army officer injured in Kashmir gunfight 01/27 Armyman killed in Kashmir a day after getting medal 01/27 Indian army colonel killed in IHK : January 28, 2015, 3:20 am 01/27 NIA drops terror charges against Liaqat; questions Delhi Police action 01/27 Cell, internet not disrupted in Kashmir on R-Day 01/26 Maj Varadarajan, Naik Singh posthumously awarded Ashok Chakra 01/26 First time in 10 yrs, Internet, mobile services on in J & K on R-day 01/26 Ashoka Chakra for two fallen bravehearts on Republic Day 01/26 Mobile, Internet services not disrupted in Kashmir on R-Day 01/26 Country before self: 2 army officers honoured with Ashok Chakra 01/26 Pakistan Army Chief in China on two-day visit 01/25 Liaquat’s arrest plotted in advance: NIA 01/25 Two fallen bravehearts to get Ashoka Chakra on Republic Day 01/25 NIA absolves 'Hizbul militant' of terror charges 01/24 Arrested Indian accused of passing military secrets to ISI 01/24 Obama in India: IB alerts Delhi Police of possible terror attack using paragliders 01/24 BSF foils major infiltration bid in Kashmir 01/23 Terrorists may avoid Delhi, target some other place, fear 01/23 Arrested Indian accused of passing secrets to Pakistan's ISI 01/23 Ahead of Obama visit, security beefed up across Kashmir Valley 01/23 Intel Alert to Mumbai's Famous Siddhivinayak Temple Ahead of Obama Arrival 01/22 Motion on Kashmiri Pandits tabled in UK Parliament 01/22 UPDATE 1-Blast kills 2 in India as security tightened for Republic Day 01/22 Ahead of Barack Obama Visit, Pakistan Talks Border Violence, Terror 01/22 US must respect international laws in war against terrorism: Pakistan : January 23, 2015, 5:30 am 01/22 Two killed in bomb blast in eastern India as security tightened for Republic Day 01/22 Army apprehends Pak's Border Action Team attack, security heightened 01/20 Rain, Snowfall Likely in Jammu and Kashmir 01/20 Meanwhile in Pakistan Democratic Freedom Party Praises Jaish-e-Mohammed 01/20 Indian Forces Foil Infiltration Bid in Jammu and Kashmir 01/20 Plan B for Obama: Reach Taj by unspecified road 01/19 Terror Attack Possibility Ahead of Republic Day a Concern for US, India 01/19 We were the survivors. We are the survivors 01/19 Two terrorists killed in Sopore encounter 01/18 Two militants killed in Sopore encounter 01/18 25 years on, Kashmir Pandits long for homeland 01/18 Ensure No Cross-Border Terror Incident During Obama's India Visit: US Warns Pakistan 01/18 Two militants killed in Jammu and Kashmir 01/18 No terror during Obama India trip, US warns Pak 01/18 Two Terrorists Killed in Sopore Encounter in Jammu and Kashmir 01/17 Policeman Killed in Militant Attack in South Kashmir's Kulgam District 01/17 'Despite befitting replies, Pakistan not mending its ways' 01/17 Kashmir dispute has to be resolved for peace, stability: Gen Sharif 01/17 Policeman killed in Kashmir militant attack 01/17 J&K: 2 militants killed in Sopore encounter 01/17 Encounter in Sopore, 2 Terrorists Holed Up in a House 01/17 Pak not mending its ways: Rajnath 01/17 Lashkar man found in politician's home 01/16 NAP: Strategy being implemented to address terrorism in Pakistan, says Army chief 01/16 Police unearths major nexus between militants and mainstream leaders 01/16 No ‘favourites’ among terrorists: Gen Raheel : January 17, 2015, 5:18 am 01/16 Resolution of Kashmir dispute necessary for peace in region: COAS 01/16 Pakistan-trained terrorists may attack civilian targets during Barack Obama's India tour, says Army 01/15 Army warns of attacks by Pak ultras ahead of Obama visit 01/15 Terrorists may attack schools, highways during Obama visit: Army official 01/15 Militants may attack schools ahead of Obama visit Army 01/15 Pakistan 'War Rooms' Planning Strikes in India, Warns Top Army Commander 01/15 J & K: 5 JeM and HM militants killed in gun battle with army 01/15 Indian troops kill 2 suspected rebels in gunbattle in disputed Kashmir region 01/15 Indian troops kill 3 suspected rebels in Kashmir gunbattle 01/15 Pakistan continues to support militants in Kashmir Army chief 01/15 Peace in Kashmir has to be maintained: Army chief 01/15 Possible attacks by Pak militants in JK ahead of Obama visit: 01/15 Pak may ban Hafiz Saeed's JuD 01/15 Indian army kills five militants in Kashmir gunbattle 01/15 Suspected rebels killed in Kashmir gun battle 01/15 Army well prepared to tackle militants Parrikar 01/15 Army well prepared to tackle militants: Parrikar 01/15 Terror Threat for Obama Visit? Defence Minister Parrikar Says 'We Are Well Prepared' 01/15 India well prepared to thwart possible terror attack: Manohar Parrikar 01/15 Jammu on High Alert in Wake of Inputs of Terrorist Attack 01/15 Peace in Kashmir has to be maintained: Gen Suhag on army day 01/15 Forces well prepared to tackle any terror threat Parrikar 01/15 London briefing: Indian truce violations threatening peace, says ISPR DG 01/15